A fast-increasing world population means a rapid urbanization process, which is taking over what was once fertile farmlands. In general, urban sprawl, droughts, and arid climate are causing food shortages. How are we going to manage to grow enough food to keep up and what’s the solution for severe global shortages?


Aquaponics refers to the relationship between water, aquatic organisms, bacteria, nutritional dynamics, and plants that grow together in water areas worldwide.

Explained in detail, an artificial ecosystem is created in which fish are fed, their waste is broken down into more absorbable forms by beneficial bacteria and the converted waste is then pushed through the system, where it provides food for plants. The plants act as a natural filter, cleaning the water, which is then recirculated through the aquaponic system.


Aquaponics is a blending of three important conditions, combining fish farming with hydroponics (soilless gardening) in the presence of beneficial bacteria. Proper system function relies on the nitrogen cycle. Ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate are the main biological toxins that occur in an aquarium, so the nitrogen cycle must work effectively to convert and remove all of these waste by-products.

A network of beneficial bacteria is required in the aquaponic set-up. The beneficial bacteria converts ammonia from fish urine and feces into nitrite and the beneficial bacteria then converts the nitrite into nitrate, a form of nitrogen that plants can receive and tolerate at low levels. Without the action of this network of beneficial bacteria, the water would develop toxic levels of nitrite which is harmful to fish and plants.
A major drawback to aquaponics systems is the need for constant nutrient and pH monitoring to maintain beneficial bacteria. If the pH level is not suitable for the system, being too low or too high, the plants won’t be able to absorb nutrients optimally and your fish may eventually die.

Aquaponics is also advantageous in that it preserves water resources. Plants absorb the fish waste, acting as an organic filter. In this way, water can be continuously recirculated, only periodically needing a fill-up to make up for evaporation and plant transpiration.


More efficient use of water: In aquaponics, the water from the fish tanks is recycled and used to grow plants, reducing the amount of water that needs to be withdrawn from natural sources.

Improved water quality: The water in aquaponic systems is cleaned and filtered by the plants, reducing the amount of waste and improving water quality for the fish.

Reduced chemical use: Because the water is reused in aquaponics, there is less need for chemical inputs, such as fertilizers and pesticides, making the system more environmentally sustainable.

More efficient use of space: In aquaponics, both fish and plants are grown in the same system, allowing for the efficient use of limited space.

Improved food security: Aquaponics can be used to grow fresh fish and vegetables in areas where access to nutritious food is limited, improving food security and reducing the need for imported food.


High startup costs: Aquaponics systems can be expensive to set up, especially for large-scale operations, due to the cost of equipment and materials, such as fish tanks, pumps, and grow beds.

Technical complexity: Aquaponics systems require a good understanding of the interdependence between fish and plants, as well as the control of water quality, temperature, and nutrition.

Dependence on electricity: Aquaponics systems rely heavily on electricity, particularly for pumps and aeration systems, which can be a challenge in areas with limited access to power.

Limited species options: Aquaponics systems are typically designed for specific species of fish and plants, so the range of species that can be grown may be limited.

Risk of disease: Disease can spread quickly in aquaponic systems, affecting both fish and plants. Therefore, it is important to monitor water quality and health closely, and take appropriate steps to prevent the spread of disease.

Water temperature management: Aquaponics systems require careful management of water temperature, which can be challenging in extreme weather conditions, such as very hot or very cold temperatures.

The Key to a More Sustainable Future?

Despite its challenges, aquaponics may be a sustainable way to grow food that can help us meet the challenges of the 21st century. It uses less water and land than traditional agriculture, and it can be done in urban areas where space is limited. Aquaponics also produces less waste and pollution than traditional agriculture. It can help us meet the challenges of climate change, water scarcity, and food insecurity.

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